How is HIV transmitted to others?

HIV is transmitted through sexual intercourse and unprotected sex with infected people. The HIV virus multiplies in the human body, and attacks the immune system by destroying lymphocytes.

HIV symptoms may not appear for several years and someone might look healthy but can still transmit the virus to others. HIV symptoms include fever, cough, and diarrhea. However, the best way to ensure HIV status is by testing.

How is HIV transmitted?

HIV can be transmitted from an infected person to another person through: blood (including menstrual blood), semen (sperm), secretions (fluids) of the vagina, breast milk (breast milk of mothers infected with HIV).

The highest concentration of the HIV virus is contained by bloods, followed by semen, and vaginal fluids and breast milk.

Activities that can lead to HIV transmission:

  • sexual intercourse without a condom
  • exposed to blood directly, including blood transfusions, injection drug needles, and accidents in health care or certain blood products
  • transmission from mother to child (during pregnancy, during delivery or through breast milk during lactation)


The following "bodily fluids" are NOT transmitting HIV:

Saliva, tears, sweat, feces and urine.


Can I get HIV through Oral Sex (sex by providing stimulation through the mouth and tongue in the sex organs / sex partner)?

Yes, it is possible for one partner is infected with HIV through performing or receiving oral sex, although this mode of transmission is less common than other sexual behaviors (anal and vaginal). There are a few cases of HIV transmission from performing oral sex on a person infected with HIV. While no one knows exactly how big the risk is, but available evidence suggests that the risk is lower than anal or vaginal sex without a condom.

How is HIV spread during sexual intercourse?

HIV transmission during sexual intercourse can occur when blood or sexual fluid enter the body and bloodstream. Sexual fluids come from woman's vagina or man's penis, before, during, or after orgasm. HIV can be passed when infected sexual fluid enter the body of a person.

Friends cannot spread HIV if there is no HIV infection in the body. If you or your partners are not infected with HIV, there is no risk of transmission. "The absence of detectable virus" does NOT mean there is no HIV infection. If you have no contact with sexual fluids or blood, there is no risk of transmission. HIV must get into the body to infection.

Hint safe sex is a way to reduce the risk of HIV transmission during sexual activity.

Unsafe Sexual Activity

Unsafe sexual activity has a high risk of the spread of HIV. The greatest risk occurs when blood or sexual fluid touches the soft and moist areas (mucous membrane) inside the vagina, rectum, nose, mouth or at the tip of the penis. This area can be damaged easily, which gives way for HIV to enter the body.

Sex through unprotected anal and vaginal very insecure, because sexual fluids can enter the body. In addition, wherever a man's penis is inserted can cause small tears that make HIV infection more likely to enter. Couples who receives more likely to be infected, although HIV may enter into the penis, especially if the penis made contact with blood or vaginal fluid is infected with HIV for a long time or if you have an open wound.

Risk of HIV transmission is Increase:

  • If the person performing oral sex has sores around the mouth or throat.
  • If the person receiving oral sex ejaculates in the mouth of the person performing oral sex, or
  • If the person receiving oral sex has other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).


Not having sex is the most effective way to avoid HIV.

  • If your partner is male and you would like to perform oral sex, then use a latex condom on the penis.
  • If you or your spouse has an allergy to latex, then use condoms that made of polyurethane.

How is HIV not transmitted?

You cannot get HIV because of shaking hands, kissing, walking together or hugging with an HIV positive person - or other social relationships. You also cannot be contracted if being around people with HIV, or using the same household appliance, such as the use of plates, cutlery, or the same sheet. HIV is not transmitted by way of spitting, sneezing or coughing, or through mosquito bites.